X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis tests samples for elemental composition. Samples are typically composed of metals, glass, solutions, soil, air, ceramics, building materials, geological, oil, and more recently biological specimens. A XRF spectrometer typically positions a X-Ray tube to generate a primary beam line to bombard the sample with primary radiation. When the primary radiation expels one of the inner electrons in the sample, secondary x-rays also known as fluorescent x-rays are generated. Each element from the periodic chart has a unique spectral, or XRF, signature based on the energies of their respective atomic orbitals. By analyzing a XRF spectrum, it’s possible to quantify the amount of each element within the sample.
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